Vol. 13 – 2022

July-December 2022, Issue 2


Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, Practices, and Barriers toward oral Health among Teachers and Caregivers of Children with Special Health Care Needs in Bareilly

Vaishnavi Singh1 , Pallavi Vashisth2 , Sathyajith Naik N3 , Shivangi Sharma4 , Ankita Chandak5

Introduction: Special care dentistry aims at management and prevention of orodental diseases in disabled children. Due to physical or mental impairments, they spend most of their time in rehabilitation centers or special schools. Their teachers and caretakers play key roles in their lives. Therefore, it is crucial that their own knowledge, attitude, and practices toward oral health are satisfactory.

 Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, practices, and barriers toward oral health among teachers and caregivers of children with special health-care needs. 

Methodology: A closed ended questionnaire consisting of 35 questions based on demographic information, knowledge, attitude, practices, and barriers toward oral health was formulated and asked to be filled by 52 special school teachers and caretakers from special schools and rehabilitation centers of Bareilly. The data were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: Maximum participants were females. Majority of them were special educators. The knowledge related to oral health-related topics was found good among participants. Practices and attitude were unsatisfactory toward oral health. Majority of participant believed inadequacy of information related to oral health in curriculum is the chief barrier toward not seeking oral health. Conclusion: A huge change in oral health-related knowledge and practices in the society can be brought up by periodic reevaluation and reinforcement. To tackle the barriers, a preventive approach should be taken.

Key words: Caretakers, children with special health care needs, rehabilitation centres, Special school, teachers



Application of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Endodontics: An Updated Review

Rupali Pandey1 , Ashish Aggarwal2 , Nitin Upadhyay3 , Nupur Agarwal4 , Sowmya Gujjar Vishnurao4 , Ankit Singh Rathore5

Early diagnosis and timely treatment of endodontic illness are crucial since it can negatively influence quality of life. Radiology is crucial for planning treatments, monitoring diseases, and evaluating how well treatments are working. The maxillofacial skeleton’s osseous components can be visualized in three dimensions (3D) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), a diagnostic imaging technique. There are CBCT systems available that can deliver low dose, limited field of view (FOV) pictures with adequate spatial resolution for use in endodontic diagnosis, treatment planning, and post-treatment evaluation.

The physician can gain a deeper understanding of the anatomy being evaluated, improving the ability to detect endodontic illness and enabling more efficient treatment planning. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the endodontic applications of CBCT.

Key words: 3 Dimensional, cone-beam computed tomography, endodontics, radiology


Original Research

The Generations of Enamel-Dentin Bonding Agents: An Update

Aditi Rathi1 , Mukesh Kumar Singhal2 , Shalini Chauhan3 , Vishwajyoti Singh4 , Akash Raut5 , Anagha Waghmare6

Adhesive dentistry has a revolution in restorative dental practice during the past 50 years. Contemporary restorations are replaced by adhesive materials completely. Improved resin-based composite restorations are more reliable and long-standing.

In addition, techniques are more conservative which depends less on mechanical retention and removal of un-supported enamel. The purpose of the article is to offer a concise, comprehensive, and an update on seventh-generation bonding agent. Moreover, the dental bonding agents evolved from total-etch (fourth- and fifth-generation) to the more recent self-etch systems(sixth- and seventh-generation). The present article is based on the review of literature and companies researches.

Key words: All-in-one, Enamel and dentin bond strength, Hybrid layer, Self-etch, Seventh generation, Smear layer


Original Article

A Review of Internal Root Resorption

Tanu Singh1 , Vaitarni2

Root resorption is the term used to describe resorption that occurs in the cementum or dentin of a tooth’s root. Resorption is a challenging issue for all dental specialists. The reasons for the rapid erosion of dental tissues are unknown, the diagnosis is educated guesses, and treatment frequently fails to prevent it. Resorption can be observed radiographically even though it cannot be anticipated. Even this diagnostic tool has limits; because resorption on the buccal or lingual surface of the tooth often is not apparent until 20–40% of the tooth structure has been demineralized. Practitioners must be able to diagnose resorption radiographically or clinically, differentiate between internal and external resorption, and initiate the proper treatment to stop the resorption process, because the etiological factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis vary depending on the different types of resorption defects. Thus, the aim of this study is to present etiopathogenesis, a clinical course, and diagnostic peculiarities of internal types of tooth root resorption, enabling practicing dentists to timely diagnose root resorption, and take appropriate measures to avoid further complications.

Key words: Cone-beam computed tomography, internal resorption, mineral trioxide aggregate, root canal treatment


Review Article

Rehabilitation of Class I Aramany Defect: A Case Report

Anagha Waghmare1 , Akash Raut1 , Chandana Nair2 , Shalini Chauhan1 , Vishwajyoti Singh1 , Aditi Rathi1

In patients with maxillary defects, oro-anatral communication causes difficulty in mastication and deglutition. It leads

to impaired speech and facial disfigurement. Prosthetic rehabilitation in such patients is faced with drawbacks such

as inadequate retention, stability and support. Prosthesis fabrication is usually influenced by the size and location of defect. An obturator prosthesis is the most commonly used treatment option for patients having maxillary defects. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating a definitive obturator prosthesis. It was decided to fabricate a complete palatal plate to ensure maximum distribution of masticatory and functional load on the tissues. Direct retention was provided by C-clasp on the left lateral incisor and right first molar. Thus, this prosthesis was helpful in rehabilitation of the patient by providing better masticatory efficiency, clarity of speech, and enhancing the quality of life of the patient.

Key words: Maxillary defect, obturator, rehabilitation


Case Report

Supraclavicular Flap as a Reconstructive Material in Maxillofacial Defect:A Case report

Archana Chaurasia1 , Himanshu Sharma1 , Vishal Mishra2 ,Meenal Airan1

Reconstruction in oral and maxillofacial region is quite a challenging, so we needed a flap that can rotate and easy to manipulate. The skin near supraclavicular area is quite thin due to which supraclavicular island flap can be easily rotated in an arc for reconstruction of head and neck region. Reconstructive procedures of oral cavity, laryngopharyngeal region and cutaneous region of the face can be done with this flap. This flap can be employed in head and neck reconstructions for patients who are not suitable for micro vascular flaps. This flap also reserves pectoralis major and deltopectoral flaps as salvage with minimum morbidity. No major failures also have been noted in the literature. Also reconstruction adjuvants like, tissue expansion can be used to reconstruct in cases of larger maxillofacial tissue defects. Here, we are describing a case report of 30-year-old male patient reported to our institute with the chief complaint of growth of mucosa in right cheek region since 3 months. Submandibular lymphadenopathy was noted on the right side. Intraorally the lesion was extending from over right buccal mucosa opposite to 43–46 tooth region. Squamous cell carcinoma with well differentiation was discovered during an incisional biopsy. As a treatment plan, we have subjected the patient to general anesthesia and under all aseptic conditions modified Schrödinger’s incision given on right side of neck. After completion of subplatysmal plane dissection, to expose level I to V lymph nodes, the excision of lymph node along with fibrofatty tissue done from level I to level V. WLE of the ulceroproliferative growth was done followed by reconstruction with supraclavicular flap with uneventful healing postoperatively.

Key words: Squamous cell carcinoma, Wide local excision, Supraclavicular artery island flap


Non-vital bleaching is a conservative approach to treat intrinsic discoloration of teeth of several etiology. Sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are the commonly used bleaching agents. The aim of this case series is to demonstrate the walking

bleach technique in non-vital and retreatment cases of maxillary anterior teeth. Maxillary central incisors were isolated with

rubber dam and root canal treatment was performed in non-vital teeth and amp; in retreatment cases after G.P retrieval. Barrier

space preparation was done using a heated instrument. Glass-ionomer cement was used as a barrier material. Mixture of H2 O2 /saline; sodium perborate was placed in canal; sealed with intermediate restorative material. After 1 week, the procedure was repeated to achieve the desired result. Walking bleach is a minimally invasive procedure to restore the esthetic of discolored non-vital; retreated tooth, however, care should be taken to avoid any post-operative complications.

Key words: Endodontic retreatment, hydrogen peroxide, sodium perborate, walking bleach


Case Report

“The Chinese Flap:” Efficacy and Versatility in Head-and-neck Reconstruction

Archana Chaurasia1 , Himanshu Sharma1 , Niyati Mishra2 , Sourav Mukherjee2 , Meenal Airan1

The aim of these study is to provide an insight about the versatility and usefulness of radial forearm free flap in head & neck reconstruction. In these present scenario where more emphasis is being given to ones presentation in order to acclaim social acceptance, the convincingness of using a Chinese flap in reconstruction of head & neck defects, plays a decisive role amidst head & neck and oral surgeons worldwide. The versatility of the flap allows its easy and extensive use in reconstruction after surgical management of benign and malignant lesions of head & neck region. Therefore, in these case report we discussed a case series depicting three different anatomical site reconstruction using the Chinese flap with successful results.

Key words: Radial fore arm free flap, Chinese flap, reconstruction, maxillofacial, Head & neck oncology



Managing Pyogenic Granuloma in an 14-Year-Old Patient: A Case Report

Mhao P. Jungio1 , Puru Abbey1 , Jean N. Murry2 , Rika Singh3 , Sujay Yadav1

A pyogenic granuloma (PG), also known as granuloma pyogenicum, is a common benign vascular tumor that can grow in tissues such as the skin and mucous membranes. The correct term for this condition is lobular capillary hemangioma, and it is generally triggered by a range of factors, such as mild local irritation, acute damage, hormonal changes, or some kind of medications. When the base and the causes of it are addressed, PG frequently does not develop. Patients of all ages experienceit, with the incidence peaking in the second and third decades of life. The typical diagnosis age for youngsters is between 6 and 10 years old. This case study describes a  14-year-old patient’s surgical management of a PG.

Key words: Pyogenic granuloma, Traumatic fibroma, Inflammatory hyperplasia


Case Report

Endodontic Management of Mandibular First Premolar with Aberrant Root Morphology – The Enigma of Endodontists

Varnika Saxena1 , Manoj Hans2 , Chandra Vijay Singh3 , Anish Kr. Maity1

Mandibular premolars have gained the reputation for having aberrant root and root canal anatomy. If one has to treat such teeth predictably, it is necessary to be aware of their clinical and radiographic morphology. The present case reports the presence and endodontic management of two separate roots with Vertucci’s Type I configuration in mandibular first premolar.

Key words: Aberrant morphology, mandibular premolars, two roots.


Case Report

Osteoradionecrosis of Mandible: A Case Report with Literature Review

Karandeep Singh Virk1 , Ashish Aggarwal2 , Nitin Upadhyay3 , Nupur Agarwal4 , Sowmya Gujjar Vishnurao4 ,Ankit Singh Rathore5

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the jaws is a longterm and serious complication of therapeutic radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. It is also known as the effect of radiation on tissues, especially bone, which causes a severe reduction in blood flow, increasing the risk of infection, and inability to recover normally. The mandible is more frequently affected. This article describes a clinical example of ORN of the mandible that developed 4 years after oral cancer therapy and had exposed bone and a necrotic process that covered the entire mandible.

Key words: Mandible, necrosis of bone, osteoradionecrosis, radiotherapy


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